# Reverse Cash and Carry arbitrage

#### Nilesh Jain

08 May 2017

New Page 1

Reverse Cash and Carry arbitrage is a combination of short position in underlying asset (cash) and long position in underlying future. It is initiated when future is trading at a discount as compared to cash market price. In other words, the cash market price is trading higher as compared to future. The arbitrageur/ trader can take position by selling his delivery of stocks in cash and simultaneously buying futures of same underlying assets of equal quantity. A trader must have delivery in that particular stock when there is such an opportunity available in the market.

Reverse cash and carry arbitrage occurs when market is in "Backwardation", which means future contracts are trading at a discount to the spot price.

Let’s try to understand with the help example of CEATLTD as on 26th APRIL 2017:

As we can see in the above illustration from 5paisa terminal there was a price difference between cash market price and May futures price of Rs 60.

 Cash market price (as on 26th April 2017) (S) Rs 1570 May Futures (Expiry on 29th May 2017) (F) Rs 1510 Contract size 700 Rate of Interest 9% (p.a.) Time to expiry (n) 29 days Amount received from selling Delivery of CEAT Rs 10,99,000 (1570*700) Margin required to sell futures Rs 1,37,595 Free cash available Rs 9,61,405 Fair value is measured by the formula S= F/(1+R)^n Lending rate 0.72% Basis Spot price-Future price

Free cash available to lend will be Rs 10,99,000 - Rs 1,37,595 = Rs 9,61,405

Gain from amount lend is Rs 6,874.71 (9,61,405*(0.09^(29/365)))

S= 1510/(1+0.09)^(29/365)

Fair Value of spot price (S)= 1500

Current spot price= 1570

Hence, we can see that there is an arbitrage opportunity.

Risk free Arbitrage=Rs 70 (1570-1500)

To take advantage from this mispricing, trader/arbitrageur will buy futures at Rs 1510 and sell CEATLTD in cash market at Rs 1570. This would result in gross arbitrage profit of Rs 42,000 (60*700). And income received from lended amount would be Rs 6874.71, so Net arbitrage profit would be Rs 48,874.71.

Scenario analysis:

Case 1: CEATLTD rises to 1620, at expiry

Loss on underlying (cash) = (1620-1570)*700= (Rs 35,000)

Profit on futures = (1620-1510)*700= Rs 77,000

Gross Gain on Arbitrage= Rs 42,000

Inflow from lending: Rs 6874.71

Net gain from arbitrage: Rs 48,874.71

Case 2: CEATLTD falls to 1450, at expiry

Profit on underlying (cash) = (1570-1450)*700= Rs 84,000

Loss on Futures= (1510-1450)*700= (Rs 42,000)

Gross Gain on Arbitrage= Rs 42,000

Inflow from lending: Rs 6874.71

Net gain from arbitrage: Rs 48,874.71

To round up, in any reverse cash and carry arbitrage, the moment you trigger this arbitrage, your profit is fixed depending upon the arbitrage opportunity. This is also called risk free arbitrage because your profit is secured irrespective of underlying price movement.

Whenever future price of an underlying asset are higher than the current spot price, a cash and carry arbitrage opportunity arises.

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• ### Patidar Samaj

- 2 hrs ago

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Why to Choose Mutual Funds Instead of Directly Investing Into Equities?

Whether to invest in equities or mutual funds is a question that has plagued every investor. As someone who needs the best value for his/her investment should you invest in equity directly or via mutual funds?

Let’s start by first understanding what these two terms ‘equities’ and ‘mutual funds’ stand for-

Equities- Equities generally represent ownership of a company. If you own any equity in a company, you are a part owner of the said company (depending on how much equity you own).

Mutual Funds – It is an investment scheme which is professionally managed by an asset management company. It pools together the resources of a group of people and invests their money in equities, debentures, bonds and other securities.

Why choose mutual funds over equities?

For people who’ve never invested in either stocks or mutual funds, it is hard to know which is better and where to start. Broadly speaking, if you are a novice investor, mutual funds are not only less risky but also way easier to manage. Here are some ways in which investing in mutual funds is beneficial as opposed to investing in equities -

Diversification

Mutual funds provide more diversification as compared to an individual equity stock. When you invest in equity, you are investing in a single company which has its inherent risk. For example, if you invest Rs.20,000 in buying equities of one company, you could face a total loss if that particular company performs poorly in the market.

If you invest the same amount in mutual funds, it will be invested in different kinds of stocks and financial instruments, high-risk and low-risk both, so you might not face total loss even if one company does poorly.

Scale of Investment and Lower Costs

For an individual investor buying and selling stocks is a difficult task due to its high price. Thus, any gains made from stock appreciation are nullified if the overall trading costs are considered. Comparatively with mutual funds, as the money is pooled from a large number of investors, the cost per individual is lowered.

Another advantage of mutual funds is that you don’t need to invest large sums of money. Buying equities for a profitable venture needs huge amounts of money, a minimum of few lakhs. With mutual funds, you can start with Rs.1000 and earn profits on that as well.

Convenience

Keeping an eye on the markets everyday is a time-consuming business, especially if you are investing as a side gig. There are people who spend their lives studying the market and still end up sustaining heavy losses. Though investing in mutual funds does not guarantee high returns, it is stress-free and needs less work as compared to investing in equities.

To sum it up

It is important to remember that mutual funds have their own disadvantages as well. Thus, as with any financial decision, educating yourself and understanding the suitability of all the available options is the ideal way to invest.

# Reverse Cash and Carry arbitrage

#### Nilesh Jain

08 May 2017

New Page 1

Reverse Cash and Carry arbitrage is a combination of short position in underlying asset (cash) and long position in underlying future. It is initiated when future is trading at a discount as compared to cash market price. In other words, the cash market price is trading higher as compared to future. The arbitrageur/ trader can take position by selling his delivery of stocks in cash and simultaneously buying futures of same underlying assets of equal quantity. A trader must have delivery in that particular stock when there is such an opportunity available in the market.

Reverse cash and carry arbitrage occurs when market is in "Backwardation", which means future contracts are trading at a discount to the spot price.

Let’s try to understand with the help example of CEATLTD as on 26th APRIL 2017:

As we can see in the above illustration from 5paisa terminal there was a price difference between cash market price and May futures price of Rs 60.

 Cash market price (as on 26th April 2017) (S) Rs 1570 May Futures (Expiry on 29th May 2017) (F) Rs 1510 Contract size 700 Rate of Interest 9% (p.a.) Time to expiry (n) 29 days Amount received from selling Delivery of CEAT Rs 10,99,000 (1570*700) Margin required to sell futures Rs 1,37,595 Free cash available Rs 9,61,405 Fair value is measured by the formula S= F/(1+R)^n Lending rate 0.72% Basis Spot price-Future price

Free cash available to lend will be Rs 10,99,000 - Rs 1,37,595 = Rs 9,61,405

Gain from amount lend is Rs 6,874.71 (9,61,405*(0.09^(29/365)))

S= 1510/(1+0.09)^(29/365)

Fair Value of spot price (S)= 1500

Current spot price= 1570

Hence, we can see that there is an arbitrage opportunity.

Risk free Arbitrage=Rs 70 (1570-1500)

To take advantage from this mispricing, trader/arbitrageur will buy futures at Rs 1510 and sell CEATLTD in cash market at Rs 1570. This would result in gross arbitrage profit of Rs 42,000 (60*700). And income received from lended amount would be Rs 6874.71, so Net arbitrage profit would be Rs 48,874.71.

Scenario analysis:

Case 1: CEATLTD rises to 1620, at expiry

Loss on underlying (cash) = (1620-1570)*700= (Rs 35,000)

Profit on futures = (1620-1510)*700= Rs 77,000

Gross Gain on Arbitrage= Rs 42,000

Inflow from lending: Rs 6874.71

Net gain from arbitrage: Rs 48,874.71

Case 2: CEATLTD falls to 1450, at expiry

Profit on underlying (cash) = (1570-1450)*700= Rs 84,000

Loss on Futures= (1510-1450)*700= (Rs 42,000)

Gross Gain on Arbitrage= Rs 42,000

Inflow from lending: Rs 6874.71

Net gain from arbitrage: Rs 48,874.71

To round up, in any reverse cash and carry arbitrage, the moment you trigger this arbitrage, your profit is fixed depending upon the arbitrage opportunity. This is also called risk free arbitrage because your profit is secured irrespective of underlying price movement.

Whenever future price of an underlying asset are higher than the current spot price, a cash and carry arbitrage opportunity arises.

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