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What Stocks/Shares (Equity) Are And How Do Shareholders Make Money?

how do Shareholders Make Money
by Priyanka Sharma 05/08/2017

Jargon is the biggest hurdle to every new investor, particularly when it comes to those who want to invest in stocks. For that reason, it's important that before someone starts focusing on losses and gains, or the BSE versus the NSE, it's important to understand what stocks really are and what they represent. You can't make any money until you grasp the fundamentals of the tools you're working with, after all. 

Put simply, stocks represent a share in a company. If someone goes online and buys a share of ONGC stock then that individual now has a stake in how well ONGC does. If the company does well, the investor does well. If the company does poorly, then the investor can lose money. How much one stands to gain or lose depends on how much stock that person has in the company, and how that particular company performs.

Let's use an example to make this a little bit clearer. Say that Company ABC wants to attract investors. As such it divides itself up into 5,00,000 shares of stock. For every person who buys stock, that money goes to the company so it can hire new employees, build new stores and generally attempt to get a bigger share of the market. Seen this way, it's clear that trading stock is great for the company. but how do you, the investor, make money?

Method 1: Make Money Trading Stocks
Trading stocks is the most well-known way to make money on the stock market. The price of a stock is liquid, climbing and falling within the space of days or even hours. The trick to make money as a trader is to buy the stock when its price is low, and to sell it when the price rises. So, say that a stock broker heard Reliance Industries is claiming a bigger part of the market and it's poised to rebound from a slump. He or she might buy stock at Rs.50 a share, and wait. If the stock goes up then the broker can sell it at a profit. So if the stock climbs to Rs.90 a share the broker has made a Rs. 40 per share profit. That's not terribly impressive for a single share, but if the broker purchased 100 shares, or 1,000 shares then that profit is going to go up pretty quickly.

It doesn't matter whether you hang onto a stock for an hour, a year or a decade; if you sell it for more than you paid for it you made a profit.

Method 2: Making Money With Stock Dividends
When someone is a stockholder in a company, that company's profits are also the stockholder's profits. The increasing value of a stock is just one instance of this. Another may be dividends paid to shareholders by the company. In plain English, that means that every quarter the company will take a segment of its profits, split it up and give those profits to stockholders according to how much stock someone has. The more profit the company makes, the more money the stockholder gets paid at the end of the quarter. The ideal situation for you to be in is to hold stock in a company that pays dividends, and which is making record profits. If you hold onto your shares then as long as the company is making money, you're making money. In essence you're being paid to own the stock, because when you bought it you paid for a share of the company. That share of the company comes with your own little piece of the profits pie.

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The ABC’s of Investing

ABC's of Investing
by Nutan Gupta 25/09/2017

The money that you earn is partly spent and the rest is saved for a rainy day. Savings refer to the funds that are kept aside in safe custody, such as a savings account. Instead of keeping this money idle, you can invest your savings in various financial instruments which will pay you a hefty return in the near future.

The question that arises now is how and where to invest this money. Potential investors can always take the help of a financial advisor and an investment advisor, both of who are capable of providing detailed knowledge on the subject on investment and investing money. Investors can start investing after fulfilling the following simple steps:

  1. Obtaining documents relating to Personal Identification Proof and Address Proof.
  2.  Approaching intermediaries like a broker, RM etc.
  3. Filling up the KYC form and furnishing the details required.
  4. Filling up of the broker-client agreement.
  5. Opening a DEMAT Account and linking it with a savings account.

As soon as these steps are completed, an investor can start investing in the financial market.

The investment options can be well classified into 2 parts. They are:

  1. Physical assets: It comprises of tangible items like real estate, commodity, goldand silver in the form of jewelry and even antiques. 
  2. Financial assets: It comprises of FDs with banks, small savings instruments with the post offices, provident fund, pension fund, money market instruments and capital market instruments.

The money market gives the scope of short term investment options. It deals with debt instruments such as bills of exchanges, commercial bills, treasury bills, certificate of deposits etc. These have relatively low risk and relatively low returns. However, they are one of the safest investment options, especially for those investors who want to play safe.

A capital market is an option for long term investment. The various instruments of capital market are shares of companies (equity), mutual fundsSIP investmentderivatives market, IPOS, etc. These have a higher risk and higher returns in comparison to the instruments of the money market. Although stock investing is considered to be more rewarding, the high risk factor associated with it can result in loss if there is a downswing in the activities of a company.

The investment strategies of an individual depend on certain factors, such as:

  1. The risk taking appetite of investor
  2. The time horizon of investment
  3. Expected return
  4. Need for investment

Investments make our fund grow over a period of time whereas savings is just idle cash. Our short term needs can be fulfilled with the help of our savings but for the achievement of our long term financial goals, investment is a must. This is only possible with financial planning.

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The ‘right’ way to exit a losing trade

Exit a losing trade

Every trader has his share of bad trades in his portfolio and you do not need all your stocks to be multi-baggers to be successful in the share market. While gains from a stock have no upper limit, the loss from a stock is limited to the value invested in it. Exiting a losing stock is not only a financial loss for a trader, but also an emotional or psychological loss. It is human tendency not to accept losses readily. We have a few recommendations that will help you exit a declining trade.

Let’s take a look

Use stops to restrict your financial losses

Stops are calculated, pre-determined price levels at which the investor chooses to go short or sell his stocks to limit losses. When the stock price hits the stop loss price, a sell order is executed and the stock is automatically sold at that price. Stop loss orders work well as they define the losses beforehand and the loss amount is in the control of the investor. Have a personalized stop loss strategy and use it effectively to limit your losses while investing in stocks.

Keep a check on the stock even after exiting to find a re-entry point

Once you exit a position, keep an eye on it to identify any bullish indication of reversal, which can be a potential re-entry point. Using stops, you might sometimes exit your position because of price volatility. In no time, you may find the prices rising again. However, using proper stops is proven to be effective as it limits your losses in most cases. Analyze the charts, study the candlestick patterns, and re-enter, only, if it coincides with your research and not in hope or revenge. If there is no valid reason to re-enter the trade after the initial exit, walk away and search for new opportunities.

Do not emotionally connect with your stock picks

You should accept your wrong picks and move on rather than lingering onto the stock in the hope of a rebound. You need to monitor and notice the developments around your shares continuously, and if stocks are taking the wrong direction, you will sometimes need to book losses and accept your wrong stock picks. Don’t fall in love with your shares, sell them if the fundamentals do not appear correct and restrict your losses. Booking losses or hedging them at an early stage can help minimize losses.

Accept responsibility and analyze your mistakes and find out where your investment plan can be improved

This will help reduce the chances of the same happening again. Handling trading losses well is a leading characteristic of successful investors. Treat a failure as an opportunity to learn and improve it in your next move. Many opportunities are waiting out there in the market for you to find and grab hold of.

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Do’s and Don’ts of Stock Market Investing for Beginners

Do's and Don'ts for beginners

With a trading account and demat account you are ready to trade. But if you are a beginner in the stock markets, then that is not all. You also need to keep a tab on some major do’s and don’ts before you venture into investing in the stock markets. Let us look at 10 such key dos and don’ts for investors.

10 important do’s and don’ts for investment beginners

Do’s are about doing the right things in the market when you are starting off on your investing journey while the don’ts are the ones to avoid. Here are ten such important dos and don’ts for investing beginners.

  1. Do your research before investing? Remember, research of a stock is not a rocket science and it is all about getting your research process right. Get comfortable reading the balance sheets and income statements of a company. Also read the Management Discussion and Analysis (MDA) of the stock you are planning to invest in.

  2. Start with your goals in mind. You must be clear about how much risk you are willing to take and how much risk you can afford to take. Your equity portfolio should be within the limits defined by your allocation. Always start with a plan.

  3. Don’t put all your eggs in one basket. That is age old wisdom and applies to investing as well. In technical parlance it is called diversification where you effectively spread your equity investments across sectors and themes so that your investment performance is not dependent on any one stock or sector.

  4. Take a long term view and cultivate that habit in the very beginning. It is futile to time the market. Not only that it is hard to consistently get the tops and bottoms of the market right but it hardly makes any difference to your eventual returns.

  5. Try to invest consistently and regularly instead of putting a large corpus in a stock of your choice. The advantage of being regular is that it instils discipline in your investment and also gives the added benefit of rupee cost averaging. That means; over time your average cost of investing comes down.

  6. Even through equity is about the long term, try to get bargains. Even if you are convinced about the long term prospects of Infosys, it makes a lot of business sense to buy at Rs.650 than at Rs.750. Quite often, a market correction creates salivating bargains. Use such corrections to add quality stocks at low prices.

  7. Divide your equity portfolio between core holdings and satellite holdings. Your core holdings are your long term investment portfolio and you don’t sell these stocks at every correction. On the other hand, the satellite portfolios are more of a trading portfolio where you look out for short to medium term opportunities in the market. Have a separate approach to both these types of stocks.

  8. Don’t ignore trading costs. Even if you are a long term investor, take at a close look at your costs. Your cost is not just about brokerage costs but there are a number of other costs too. There are statutory costs, exchange charges, demat AMC, DIS charges, demat and remat charges etc. All these need to be added to calculate your effective cost. Nowadays, it makes a lot of sense to opt for low-cost discount brokers who can give the same execution at a much lower cost.

  9. As a beginner, remember that quality always wins in the end. When we talk about quality we are talking about quality at a number of levels. Look at quality of earnings; more of the earnings must be coming from the core business. Look at profitability; the company must be earning more margins than the peer group. Take stock of asset turnover; it tells you how efficiently the business is using assets. At a qualitative level, prefer companies that have high standard of disclosure and transparency. Large caps or mid caps, this quality approach always works in your favour.

  10. Make effective use of technology and if you are a beginner then you better get used to it early. Ideally use the online trading platform; it gives you a lot more control over your trades. Also, if possible you can download the app on your smart phone which allows you to trade on the run. Get used to reading electronic contract notes and ledgers; they are a lot more convenient and environment friendly than printed stuff.

In an effort to chase stocks, investors tend to forget that investment success is a lot more about discipline than about skills or flair. It is in your hands to make your investments work in a systematic manner.

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Union Budget 2020 – What’s It All About?

Union Budget 2020
01/02/2020

Budget 2020 was rich on expectations but the exemptions in the budget were much lower than what the market desired. The impact was visible in the performance of the stock market indices which cracked in response. While a detailed analysis is still due, the immediate reaction of the market appears to be that there was no big bang announcement in the Union Budget despite the tough macro conditions. Here are some of the major announcements in the Union Budget 2020.

Response to macro pressures

  • Nominal growth for fiscal year 2020-21 has been pegged at 10%. The real rate of GDP growth could be in the range of 5.5% to 6% depending on the nominal growth actually achieved as even 10% does look quite steep at this point in time.

  • The budget 2020 has fully utilised the 50 bps leeway on fiscal deficit offered by the N K Singh Committee. For 2019-20, the fiscal deficit has been pegged at 3.8% instead of 3.3% while for the fiscal year 2020-21 it is pegged at 3.5% instead of 3%.

  • There is some positive impact on post-harvest infrastructure. To improve post harvest infrastructure, including cold storage, the budget has announced viability funding based on public-private-partnership. Indian Railways will run dedicated trains to support the cold chain plan.

Some cheer for Corporates and MSMEs

  • Despite the lack of any cost advantage, the Budget 2020 has outlined big plans for manufacture of mobile phones and electronic equipment and semiconductor packaging. In addition, the 15% concessional tax will be extended to the power sector too.

  • Finally, MSMEs have something to be really pleased about. Invoice financing via the factoring method will be extended to MSME as will be the issue of subordinated debt to MSMEs and handholding in the early stages.

No cheer for markets and that was evident

  • LTCG on equity stocks and equity funds was not scrapped, despite the STT being introduced in 2004 in lieu of LTCG tax. This is resulting in the cascading effect of STT plus LTCG tax and that is adding to the costs of traders and investors.

  • While DDT has been scrapped on equity and on equity funds, it comes back in another form. At the same time, the dividend distribution tax on debt funds will continue as before. There will be a single point of taxing dividends as other income at the applicable peak rates of tax for individuals.

  • Efforts are being made to reduce tax burden on middle class. People earning in the range of Rs.5 lakh to Rs.15 lakhs will see reduction in taxes.

Direct tax; more complicated than effective

  • Direct tax regime has suddenly become a lot more complicated. There will be two regimes; first regime will focus on status quo with all exemptions and rebates. The new regime with lower rates applicable will be devoid of exemptions and rebates. Loss of exemptions could be a big cost as many exemptions are virtually mandatory or inevitable like life premiums, provident fund, tuition fees, home principal etc.

  • Under the new tax regime, direct taxes will be as under:

Income bracket

Below 5l

5l to 7.5l

7.5l to 10l

10l to 12.5l

12.5l to 15l

Above 15l

Tax Rate (%)

Zero

10

15

20

25

30

Above table represents the new regime. If you opt for the second option, then your IT form will be auto-filled. That simplicity appears to be the only visible advantage.

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Hurled by the IPO Rush? Here’s All You Need to Know About ASBA

ASBA IPO
IPO
by Nikita Bhoota 27/02/2020

ASBA (applications supported by blocked amounts) was introduced by SEBI to protect the interests of the retail investors. ASBA can used to apply for IPOs, FPOs, rights issues etc. In ASBA, the designated bank account only gets blocked to the extent of the application money. On the date of allotment, the amount gets debited to the extent of allotted shares and the balance gets released. If zero shares are allotted to the applicant, then the entire blocked amount under ASBA is released.

Who can make an ASBA investment?

ASBA is mandatory for all IPOs after January 01st 2016. However, an ASBA investor has to fulfil some basic conditions.

  • He must be a resident individual applying under the Retail Quota
  • Bid must be at cut-off price with a single option of number of shares bid
  • ASBA application has to be made through self certified syndicate bankers (SCSB)
  • Such price intibid made in ASBA cannot be revised later on
  • ASBA cannot be used for other categories like employees / shareholders etc.

What are the advantages of ASBA?

ASBA comes as a major boon to retail investors. Here are some of the major advantages.

  • Since the amount is only blocked, you continue to earn interest
  • You don’t worry about refunds as only the allotment money is debited
  • The application process is very simple and you can apply through your bank
  • The blocked amount is included in average quarterly balance (AQB)
  • Even through bids cannot be revised, they can be cancelled.

How can an ASBA application be cancelled?

While an ASBA application cannot be revised as per the rules, the ASBA application can certainly be cancelled. There are two distinct situations here. If the IPO has not closed, you can cancel the ASBA application through your online trading account or through the bank. Your SCSB will cancel the bid and unblock the amount right away. However, if you withdraw after the issue closes, then you have to write to the registrar to cancel the bid. The SCSB will only remove the block after the allotment is complete and they get intimation from the registrar.