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Equities - Meaning & Definition

When it comes to stock market investment, equities are nothing but the shares in a corporation’s ownership. In a nutshell, equities are the overall amount of money a shareholder is liable to receive when a company pays off all its debts and further liquidates its assets. Thus, when an individual buys a company’s equities, they become its partial owner. 

This individual can further earn profits through stock price appreciation or capital gains on investments in the company’s stocks. Moreover, investing in a corporation’s shares can also allow an individual the right to vote in all matters concerning the BOD (Board of Directors). 

Equity investments are gaining peak popularity among individuals solely because they are considered as high-return investment choices. Nonetheless, while they carry a great potential to hold high returns, they put an individual’s investment portfolio at extreme vulnerability. Individuals must thus gauge their risk potential thoroughly and further do meticulous research to minimise this risk. 

Different Types of Equity

Equities are known as market-associated investments that do not offer the reliability/ guarantee of holding fixed returns. Thus, the returns on the equity are primarily dependent on the respective asset’s performance. Equity investments are classified into distinguishing types, each one of them comprising a specific set of rewards and risks. Read below the types of equity investments. 

Equity Mutual Fund Investments

Mutual funds are nothing but types of investment where the capital from a myriad of investors is collected, collaborated, and further invested in various equity and debt instruments. These funds are those wherein about 60% of the overall assets are primarily invested in different company shares. These shares are further distinguished depending on their market capitalisation as follows. 

1. Large-cap equities 

These funds comprise investments only in certain prominent companies and have the ability to offer stable returns at a supposedly lower risk. 

2. Mid-cap equities 

Mid-cap funds are primarily invested in the shares of several mid-cap companies. They are considered the most reliable investment options due to their balanced risk-reward ratio. 

3. Small-cap equities 

These funds are invested in the stocks of corporations with a small market capitalisation. They are much more volatile than most types of investments. 

4. Multi-cap equities 

These funds are readily available to invest in several sectors and market capitalisations. 


Shares are nothing but the elements of partial ownership in a corporation. They are generally traded through designated stock exchanges. The probable returns from these types of investments are substantial whilst their risks are equally enhanced. 


Read more in detail - What are Shares


Equity Options 

Equity options are linked to futures wherein parties included aren’t legally obligated to keep up with the agreement. 

Arbitrage Schemes 

Arbitrage is regimes as the process of purchasing and further selling securities in distinguishing exchanges simultaneously for profiting from the remainder of the market price. Investors can invest in these funds that are equity-centered funds with major investment in equities, money or debt market instruments, and equity derivatives.

Equity Futures 

Equity futures are investment instruments. Here, the investors are obliged to invest or sell their underlying assets at a predetermined rate. Equity futures primarily have an expiry period of about three months. The settlement day is taken as the last Thursday of the third month. 

Additional Investment Funds 

Investors can invest in equity instruments via various alternative funds that consist of pooled investments that majorly invest in venture capital, hedge funds, private equity, managed future, and so on.

Benefits of Equity Shares

High returns 

Equity shares offer comparatively higher returns to investors. Shareholders can thus get an edge over their investments to further enjoy wealth creation not only by dividend earning but also by capital appreciation. 

Convenience of Investment 

Investing in shares is rather effortless. Investors can get access to the services of a financial planner or stockbroker to invest in significant stock exchanges that are taking place. 

Offers security against Inflation 

Individuals investing in equity shares have the capacity to earn high returns. The return rates earned are much more than the rates of wearing down of an individual’s buying potential because of inflation. Due to this, equity shares offer a barrier against inflation.

Broadening of Investment Portfolio 

Another one of the great vendors of equities is that they help you broaden your portfolio. Investors mainly prefer sticking to debt instruments as they are comparatively low-risk investment choices, comprising lower volatility. Nonetheless, debt instruments do not usually offer high returns due to which many individuals can broaden their investment portfolio solely by buying equities for higher returns.