The World of Quantitative Easing

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by Tanushree Jaiswal Last Updated: Oct 18, 2023 - 10:43 am 291 Views
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Quantitative Easing (QE) is a significant & unconventional monetary policy tool employed by central banks to stimulate following:

  • Economic Growth, 
  • Maintain Stability,
  • Address crises. 

In this blog, we will explore what quantitative easing is, why it is used, its historical applications, & the outcomes of its implementation. We will also delve into the potential disadvantages of this monetary policy. Let’s start with the basics!


What is Quantitative Easing?

Quantitative Easing is a strategy employed by central banks to inject money into the economy. Unlike traditional monetary policies, which mainly involve adjusting short-term interest rates, QE involves central banks purchasing long-term financial assets, typically government bonds or other securities. 
Ramification of which is new money gets created & the money supply increases, aimed at lowering long-term interest rates & stimulating economic activity.

Why is it Used?

Quantitative Easing is used when conventional monetary policies, such as lowering interest rates, become ineffective. It serves several key purposes:

  1. Economic Stimulus: Central banks use QE to encourage borrowing, spending, & investing, thereby boosting economic growth.
  2. Fighting Deflation: When an economy is at risk of deflation (falling prices), QE can help prevent or mitigate this threat by increasing money supply & encouraging spending.
  3. Market Liquidity: During financial crises, QE provides liquidity to markets & stabilizes asset prices.

When Has QE Been Used?

Quantitative Easing has been employed in several major economies during times of economic crisis:

  1. United States: The U.S. Federal Reserve initiated QE during the 2008 financial crisis & later employed it in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
  2. Eurozone: The European Central Bank (ECB) launched QE in response to the Eurozone debt crisis, & it was reactivated in 2015 & 2019.
  3. Japan: The Bank of Japan implemented QE in the early 2000s & continued to use it to combat persistent deflation.

Outcomes of Quantitative Easing

The outcomes of QE can vary, but they often include:

  1. Lower Interest Rates: QE effectively reduces long-term interest rates, making borrowing cheaper & spurring investment.
  2. Stimulated Economic Growth: By encouraging borrowing & spending, QE can help boost economic growth during times of recession.
  3. Increased Asset Prices: QE often leads to higher prices for assets like stocks & real estate, benefiting investors but potentially exacerbating wealth inequality.
  4. Inflation: Central banks aim for a modest level of inflation, & QE can help prevent deflation, ensuring price stability.

Disadvantages of Quantitative Easing

While QE has its advantages, it is not without drawbacks:

  1. Asset Bubbles: One criticism is that QE can inflate asset prices to unsustainable levels, potentially leading to bubbles that burst.
  2. Wealth Inequality: QE tends to benefit asset owners more than those without significant investments, increasing wealth inequality.
  3. Limited Effectiveness: The impact of QE can diminish over time, especially if interest rates are already very low.
  4. Potential Inflation Risk: Although central banks aim to maintain price stability, excessive QE can lead to higher inflation if not managed carefully.


In conclusion, Quantitative Easing is a powerful tool that central banks use to navigate complex economic landscapes. By injecting money into the economy & lowering long-term interest rates, it can stimulate growth & combat deflation. 
However, it comes with potential drawbacks, including asset bubbles, wealth inequality, & risks of inflation. Understanding the delicate balance of using QE is crucial for central banks, as they seek to maintain economic stability & promote growth in an ever-changing financial world.

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About the Author

Tanushree is a seasoned professional with 6 years of experience in the Fintech and Edtech industry.


Investment/Trading in securities Market is subject to market risk, past performance is not a guarantee of future performance. The risk of loss in trading and investment in Securities markets including Equites and Derivatives can be substantial.
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