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Adani Ports 745.85 (-0.54%)
Asian Paints 3094.65 (4.20%)
Axis Bank 787.50 (-6.46%)
B P C L 427.70 (-0.78%)
Bajaj Auto 3776.50 (-0.40%)
Bajaj Finance 7482.15 (-4.75%)
Bajaj Finserv 18012.00 (-1.86%)
Bharti Airtel 702.35 (0.88%)
Britannia Inds. 3697.85 (0.14%)
Cipla 922.50 (1.65%)
Coal India 173.60 (-0.83%)
Divis Lab. 5149.35 (2.60%)
Dr Reddys Labs 4662.70 (-0.08%)
Eicher Motors 2583.90 (-0.25%)
Grasim Inds 1728.40 (-0.63%)
H D F C 2915.00 (0.12%)
HCL Technologies 1177.15 (0.89%)
HDFC Bank 1642.80 (-0.60%)
HDFC Life Insur. 693.85 (0.55%)
Hero Motocorp 2690.15 (-0.38%)
Hind. Unilever 2396.60 (-1.65%)
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I O C L 130.80 (-0.53%)
ICICI Bank 835.00 (0.68%)
IndusInd Bank 1142.55 (-1.07%)
Infosys 1728.95 (1.48%)
ITC 238.45 (0.74%)
JSW Steel 684.90 (-1.36%)
Kotak Mah. Bank 2188.25 (-1.03%)
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NTPC 141.30 (-1.33%)
O N G C 157.90 (-3.19%)
Power Grid Corpn 190.25 (-0.08%)
Reliance Industr 2627.40 (-1.26%)
SBI Life Insuran 1186.00 (1.19%)
Shree Cement 28107.75 (1.19%)
St Bk of India 519.15 (1.29%)
Sun Pharma.Inds. 825.10 (1.43%)
Tata Consumer 818.75 (1.22%)
Tata Motors 497.90 (-2.11%)
Tata Steel 1326.15 (-1.30%)
TCS 3489.75 (0.21%)
Tech Mahindra 1567.85 (0.29%)
Titan Company 2460.10 (0.22%)
UltraTech Cem. 7354.20 (1.17%)
UPL 741.50 (3.96%)
Wipro 671.10 (0.44%)

Call Ratio Spread Explained

Call Ratio Spread Explained
by Nilesh Jain 26/05/2017

What is Call Ratio Spread?

The Call Ratio Spread is a premium neutral strategy that involves buying options at lower strikes and selling higher number of options at higher strikes of the same underlying stock.

When to initiate the Call Ratio Spread

The Call Ratio Spread is used when an option trader thinks that the underlying asset will rise moderately in the near term only up to the sold strikes. This strategy is basically used to reduce the upfront costs of premium paid and in some cases upfront credit can also be received.

How to construct the Call Ratio Spread?

Buy 1 ITM/ATM Call

Sell 2 OTM Call

The Call Ratio Spread is implemented by buying one In-the-Money (ITM) or At-the-Money (ATM) call option and simultaneously selling two Out-the-Money (OTM) call options of the same underlying asset with the same expiry. Strike price can be customized as per the convenience of the trader.

Strategy

Call Ratio Spread

Market Outlook

Moderately bullish with less volatility

Upper Breakeven

Difference between long and short strikes + short call strikes +/- premium received or paid

Lower Breakeven

Strike price of long call +/- Net premium paid or received

Risk

Unlimited

Reward

Limited (when Underlying price = strike price of short call)

Margin required

Yes

Let’s try to understand with an Example:

NIFTY Current market Price

9300

Buy ATM Call (Strike Price)

9300

Premium Paid (per share)

140

Sell OTM Call (Strike Price)

9400

Premium Received

70

Net Premium Paid/Received

0

Upper BEP

9500

Lower BEP

9300

Lot Size

75

Suppose Nifty is trading at Rs 9300. If Mr. A believes that price will rise to Rs 9400 on expiry, then he enters Call Ratio Spread by buying one lot of 9300 call strike price at Rs 140 and simultaneously selling two lot of 9400 call strike price at Rs 70. The net premium paid/received to initiate this trade is zero. Maximum profit from the above example would be Rs 7500 (100*75). For this strategy to succeed the underlying asset has to expire at 9400. In this case short call option strikes will expire worthless and 9300 strike will have some intrinsic value in it. However, maximum loss would be unlimited if it breaches breakeven point on upside.

For the ease of understanding, we did not take in to account commission charges. Following is the payoff schedule assuming different scenarios of expiry.

The Payoff Schedule:

On Expiry NIFTY closes at

Net Payoff from 9300 Call Bought (Rs)

Net Payoff from 9400 Call Sold (Rs) (2Lots)

Net Payoff (Rs)

8900

-140

140

0

9000

-140

140

0

9100

-140

140

0

9200

-140

140

0

9300

-140

140

0

9350

-90

140

50

9400

-40

140

100

9450

10

40

50

9500

60

-60

0

9600

160

-260

-100

9700

260

-460

-200

9800

360

-660

-300

9900

460

-860

-400

The Payoff Graph:

Impact of Options Greeks:

Delta: If the net premium is received from the Call Ratio Spread, then the Delta would be negative, which means slight upside movement will result into loss and downside movement will result into profit.

If the net premium is paid then the Delta would be positive which means any downside movement will result into premium loss, whereas a big upside movement is required to incur loss.

Vega: The Call Ratio Spread has a negative Vega. An increase in implied volatility will have a negative impact.

Theta: With the passage of time, Theta will have a positive impact on the strategy because option premium will erode as the expiration dates draws nearer.

Gamma: The Call Ratio Spread has short Gamma position, which means any major upside movement will impact the profitability of the strategy.

How to manage risk?

The Call Ratio Spread is exposed to unlimited risk if underlying asset breaks higher breakeven; hence one should follow strict stop loss to limit loses.

Analysis of Call Ratio Spread:

The Call Ratio Spread is best to use when an investor is moderately bullish because investor will make maximum profit only when stock price expires at higher (sold) strike. Although investor profits will be limited if the price does not rise higher than expected sold strike.

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Bull Put Spread

Bull Put Spread
by Nilesh Jain 26/05/2017

What is Bull Put Spread Option strategy?

A Bull Put Spread involves one short put with higher strike price and one long put with lower strike price of the same expiration date. A Bull Put Spread is initiated with flat to positive view in the underlying assets.

When to initiate Bull Put Spread

Bull Put Spread Option strategy is used when the option trader believes that the underlying assets will rise moderately or hold steady in the near term. It consists of two put options – short and long put. Short put’s main purpose is to generate income, whereas long put is bought to limit the downside risk.

How to Construct the Bull Put Spread?

Bull Put Spread is implemented by selling At-the-Money (ATM) Put option and simultaneously buying Out-the-Money (OTM) Put option of the same underlying security with the same expiry. Strike price can be customized as per the convenience of the trader.

Probability of making money

A Bull Put Spread has a higher probability of making money as compared to Bull Call Spread. The probability of making money is 67% because Bull Put Spread will be profitable even if the underlying assets holds steady or rise. While, Bull Call Spread has probability of only 33% because it will be profitable only when the underlying assets rise.

Strategy

Sell 1 ATM Put and Buy 1 OTM Put

Market Outlook

Neutral to Bullish

Motive

Earn income with limited risk

Breakeven at expiry

Strike Price of Short Put - Net Premium received

Risk

Difference between two strikes - premium received

Reward

Limited to premium received

Margin required

Yes

Let’s try to understand with an example:

Nifty Current spot price (Rs)

9300

Sell 1 ATM Put of strike price (Rs)

9300

Premium received (Rs)

105

Buy 1 OTM Put of strike price (Rs)

9200

Premium paid (Rs)

55

Break Even point (BEP)

9250

Lot Size

75

Net Premium Received (Rs)

50

Suppose Nifty is trading at Rs 9300. If Mr. A believes that price will rise above 9300 or hold steady on or before the expiry, so he enters Bull Put Spread by selling 9300 Put strike price at Rs 105 and simultaneously buying 9200 Put strike price at Rs 55. The net premium received to initiate this trade is Rs 50. Maximum profit from the above example would be Rs 3750 (50*75). It would only occur when the underlying assets expires at or above 9300. In this case, both long and short put options expire worthless and you can keep the net upfront credit received that is Rs 3750 in the above example. Maximum loss would also be limited if it breaches breakeven point on downside. However, loss would be limited to Rs 3750(50*75).

For the ease of understanding, we did not take in to account commission charges. Following is the payoff chart and payoff schedule assuming different scenarios of expiry.

The Payoff Schedule:

On Expiry Nifty closes at

Payoff from Put Sold 9300 (Rs)

Payoff from Put Bought 9200 (Rs)

Net Payoff (Rs)

8800

-395

345

-50

8900

-295

245

-50

9000

-195

145

-50

9100

-95

45

-50

9200

5

-55

-50

9250

55

-55

0

9300

105

-55

50

9400

105

-55

50

9500

105

-55

50

9600

105

-55

50

9700

105

-55

50

 

Payoff diagram

 

 


 

Impact of Options Greeks:

 

Delta: Delta estimates how much the option price will change as the stock price changes. The net Delta of Bull Put Spread would be positive, which indicates any downside movement would result in loss.

Vega: Bull Put Spread has a negative Vega. Therefore, one should initiate this strategy when the volatility is high and is expected to fall.

Theta: Time decay will benefit this strategy as ATM strike has higher Theta as compared to OTM strike.

Gamma: This strategy will have a short Gamma position, so any downside movement in the underline asset will have a negative impact on the strategy.

How to manage Risk?

A Bull Put Spread is exposed to limited risk; hence carrying overnight position is advisable.

Analysis of Bull Put Spread Options strategy:

A Bull Put Spread Options strategy is limited-risk, limited-reward strategy. This strategy is best to use when an investor has neutral to Bullish view on the underlying assets. The key benefit of this strategy is the probability of making money is higher as compared to Bull Call Spread.

Next Article

Best Mutual Funds to invest in as Assets Under Management reach record high

Best Mutual Funds to invest in as Assets Under Management reach record high
by Priyanka Sharma 26/05/2017

The Mutual Fund industry has witnessed a steady surge in investment in the recent past, especially among retail investors. According to the data published by the Association of Mutual Funds in India, the Average Assets Under Management (AAUM) of the Indian Mutual Fund industry for the month of March 2017 stood at Rs 18.58 lakh crore. For an investor, it has become increasingly important to know about different MF options available and the respective returns.

Within a 10 year period, the AUM of the Indian MF Industry has grown from Rs 3.26 lakh crore as on March 31, 2007 to Rs 17.55 lakh crore as on March 31, 2017. Perhaps one of the highlights of this trend is that there has been a consistent increase in the number of folios under equity and the ELSS schemes. Data showed that the total number of accounts, or folios as per Mutual Fund parlance, as on March 31, 2017 stood at 5.54 crore, while the number of folios under equity, ELSS and balanced schemes, wherein the maximum investment is from retail segment, stood at Rs 4.44 crore.

Today, an average Indian investor is more aware about Mutual Fund investments and wants to create wealth in a systematic and planned manner. Indian Mutual Funds have currently about 1.35 crore SIP accounts through which investors regularly invest in Indian Mutual Fund schemes. AMFI data shows that the MF industry added about 6.26 lakh SIP accounts each month on an average during the current financial year, with an average SIP size of about Rs 3,200 per SIP account.

Given the heightened interest of an average investor and the plethora of investment opportunities available today, here is a list of funds across different segments, including Balanced Funds, Large-cap and mid-cap and multi-cap funds, and debt funds, besides others.

Balanced Funds

Scheme Name

Corpus (Rs cr)

6 M (%)

1 Y (%)

3 Y (%)

5 Y (%)

Expense Ratio (%)

HDFC Prudence Fund(G)

19,959

11.8

30.1

19.7

17.1

2.27

ICICI Pru Balanced Fund(G)

9,147

9.4

25.4

19.6

18.8

2.09

Birla SL Balanced '95 Fund(G)

7,419

8.3

23.2

20.3

18.2

2.29

Large Cap

Scheme Name

Corpus (Rs cr)

6 M (%)

1 Y (%)

3 Y (%)

5 Y (%)

Expense Ratio (%)

SBI BlueChip Fund-Reg(G)

12,586

8.1

20.3

21.4

20.3

2.11

Birla SL Top 100 Fund(G)

2,663

10.8

26

19.2

19.2

2.29

IIFL India Growth Fund-Reg(G)

362

6.4

28.7

0

0

1.95

Multi-cap

Scheme Name

Corpus (Rs cr)

6 M (%)

1 Y (%)

3 Y (%)

5 Y (%)

Expense Ratio (%)

Reliance Growth Fund(G)

6,091

11.6

33.9

23.5

18.6

2.00

Birla SL Equity Fund(G)

4,801

9.2

33.9

24.7

22.6

2.20

Franklin India Prima Plus Fund(G)

10,703

9.6

20.8

22.1

19.7

2.32

DSPBR Small & Mid Cap Fund-Reg(G)

3,405

15.6

43.5

33

25

2.54

Reliance Mid & Small Cap Fund(G)

2,758

10.7

34.9

28.6

24.2

2.06

Mid-cap

Scheme Name

Corpus (Rs Cr)

6 M (%)

1 Y (%)

3 Y (%)

5 Y (%)

Expense Ratio (%)

UTI Mid Cap Fund(G)

3,828

9.1

26.9

29.6

26.8

2.34

SBI Magnum MidCap Fund-Reg(G)

3,583

7.2

23.7

29.9

28.8

2.04

Franklin India Prima Fund(G)

5,389

13.8

33.3

30.5

27.6

2.36

HDFC Mid-Cap Opportunities Fund(G)

15,734

14.9

39

30

26.1

2.22

Small-cap

Scheme Name

Corpus (Rs Cr)

6 M (%)

1 Y (%)

3 Y (%)

5 Y (%)

Expense Ratio (%)

Franklin India Smaller Cos Fund(G)

5,238

11.9

33.1

33.2

31.7

2.38

Reliance Small Cap Fund(G)

3,344

20.2

46.3

39.3

32.7

 
Next Article

7 Hacks To Lower Your Car Insurance Costs

7 Hacks To Lower Your Car Insurance Costs
by Divya Nair 01/06/2017

Buying a new car today might be cheaper than actually using one in our daily lives. The running cost of a car today is definitely higher than the day it was bought. While nothing can be done about the rising premiums on car insurance, we can certainly try cutting down the overall costs on our insurance covers.

Try These 7 Smart Ways To Save On Your Car Insurance Cost:

1. Accumulating NCB - Car owners can accumulate No Claim Bonus (NCB) by not claiming for minor repairs. Many insurance companies usually reduce premiums for the preceding year if you don’t make any claims in a year. Moreover, it is better to spend on your own on minor repairs than file a claim and lose the no-claim bonus.

2. Transferring NCB -

You can transfer your NCB when you sell your old vehicle and buy a new one. When getting your new car, all you have to do is inform your insurance provider that you wish to transfer your NCB. That done, the insurer will provide you with a certificate stating the details of the new car.

3. Apply For Discounts -

There are few insurance companies that offer discounts based on your age and profession. Make sure you apply for it.

4. Install Anti-Theft Devices -

People can also reduce the premium costs by installing smart anti-theft devices like alarms and tracking devices. By installing such safety devices, vehicle owners can get substantial discount.

5. Drop Unnecessary Add-On Covers -

We are often advised to buy the necessary add-on covers while buying a new car. But an add-on should not be bought only for the sake of buying it. One should drop any unnecessary add-on covers which will otherwise increase the premium costs.

6. Opt For Voluntary Deductible -

Vehicle owners can opt for a voluntary deductible and get further discount. But this also means that they will have to bear the claim cost upto the value of the deductible chosen.

7. Compare Quotes Online Before Purchasing -

It is wise to do an online comparison of policies from a number of companies before buying a policy. Most insurance companies offer lower premiums online. You may miss out on huge discount if you do not compare various plans.

Conclusion - With the rising cost of vehicles and changing lifestyles, car insurance cost is unlikely to go down in times to come. With these 7 ways mentioned above, we hope you will be able to lessen that extra cost on car insurance.

Buy a Car Insurance Cover Now!

Next Article

All About House Rent Allowance (HRA)

All About House Rent Allowance (HRA)
by Divya Nair 01/06/2017

House Rent Allowance (HRA) is the amount which your employer pays you towards the rent of your accommodation. Every salaried individual living in a rented flat is entitled to claim HRA to save on taxes. HRA is regulated by the provisions of Section 10(13A) of the Income Tax Act.

How Is HRA Decided?

It is decided based on the criteria like salary of the employee and the city of residence of the employee. If the employee resides in a metro city, then he/she is entitled to HRA almost equal to 50% of the salary. For others, HRA entitlement is 40% of the salary.

How To Use HRA To Save Income Tax?

A salaried individual can claim HRA exemptions only if these conditions are met: HRA is received as part of the salary package If an employee stays in a rented house rent paid is more than 10% of the salary.

How Much Of HRA Is Exempt From Income Tax?

The entitled HRA to an employee is not always fully exempt from tax. Employers take into consider the least of the below three heads to exempt tax - HRA received from the employer Actual rent paid less 10% of salary 50% of basic salary for those living in metro cities 40% of basic salary for those living in non-metro cities

Taxable HRA For Mr. X Who Lives In Mumbai
Basic Salary Rs 30,000
HRA Received Rs 13,000
Rent On Accommodation 1,44,000

Hence, Mr.X would get an HRA exemption of Rs 13,000 (the least among the three conditions). You can also save tax by paying rent to your parents, grandparents even if they do not have taxable income. In this case, they will act as your landlord, but the owner of the house should be the one whose name is furnished in the rent receipt.

Documents Required To Claim HRA Benefit -

If the HRA claim is just upto Rs 3,000/month, employees need not furnish any documents. But for amount exceeding this limit, the following documents need to be submitted to the employer -

Rent Receipts:

For HRA tax exemption, employees need to affix a one rupee revenue stamp on rent receipt with details of rented house and landlord like address of rented house, landlord name, amount of rent etc. The rent receipt has to have the signature of the landlord.

Rental Agreement In Some Cases:

If the rent exceeds Rs 15000/month, then PAN details of the landlord is mandatory for claiming HRA exemption.

Next Article

5 Stocks Recommendation For Feb 25th, 2019 – Mar 1st , 2019

Stock recommendations
by Gautam Upadhaya 21/07/2017

1) Balkrishna Industries Ltd - Buy

 

Stock Balkrishna Industries Ltd
Recommendation The stock has witnessed a breakout from its sideways consolidation
backed by an uptick in volumes on the daily chart. It has also shown
positive momentum on the daily MACD-Histogram, an indication that
the uptrend will continue in the short term.
Buy/Sell Range Target Stop Loss
Buy (Cash) Rs850-855 Rs892 Rs827
NSE Code Market Cap (in Rs cr) 52-week high/low 200-Day EMA
BALKRISIND 16543 Rs1467/741 Rs987

 

2) REC Ltd - Buy

 

Stock REC Ltd
Recommendation The stock has witnessed a consolidation breakout backed by an uptick
in volumes on the weekly chart. Derivative data indicates fresh long
positions in the stock.
Buy/Sell Range Target Stop Loss
Buy (Cash) Rs131-133 Rs139 Rs127.8
NSE Code Market Cap (in Rs cr) 52-week high/low 200-Day EMA
RECLTD 26068 Rs148/89 Rs119

 

3) Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd - Buy

 

Stock Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd
Recommendation The stock has witnessed a rounding bottom formation and has managed
to close above its 10-DEMA, short-term resistance level on the daily charts.
It has also formed a bullish hammer candlestick on the weekly charts.
Buy/Sell Range Target Stop Loss
Buy (Cash) Rs641-647 Rs672 Rs625
NSE Code Market Cap (in Rs cr) 52-week high/low 200-Day EMA
M&M 80272 Rs992/615 Rs771

 

4) Raymond Ltd - Buy
 

Stock Raymond Ltd
Recommendation The stock has witnessed a breakout above its resistance levels backed by an uptick in volumes on the daily charts. It has also shown strong momentum on the daily MACD-Histogram.
Buy/Sell Range Target Stop Loss
Buy (Cash) Rs721-728 Rs755 Rs705
NSE Code Market Cap (in Rs cr) 52-week high/low 200-Day EMA
RAYMOND 4478 Rs1151/593 Rs806

 

5) HDFC Bank Ltd - Sell

 

Stock HDFC Bank Ltd
Recommendation The stock has formed a bearish engulfing candlestick pattern backed by an uptick in volumes on the daily chart. Derivative data indicates fresh short positions in the stock.
Buy/Sell Range Target Stop Loss
Sell (March Futures) Rs2105-2120 Rs2030 Rs2164
NSE Code Market Cap (in Rs cr) 52-week high/low 200-Day EMA
HDFCBANK 569029 Rs2219/1830 Rs2041

 

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