What are open-ended mutual fund & close-ended mutual fund?

What are open-ended mutual fund & close-ended mutual fund?
by Priyanka Sharma 13/06/2017

Financial world and its terminologies can leave the most intelligent people baffled with its nitty gritties. To a layman it all appears the same until he/she dwelves deeper to create a portfolio of their own. We simplify the financial terminology to help you understand this not so complex world of finance easily.

What are open-ended funds?

Open-Ended Funds are simply put a category of the mutual fund where there is no restriction on the number of shares issued. For example, when Mr X purchases shares in a mutual fund, the number of shares overall increases. But when Mr X sells his shares, those shares are taken out of circulation and if required for large dealings the fund manager may have to sell some of the investments to pay off Mr X’s money.

Funds and their managers are prone to seeing a continuous entry and exit of investors as the funds sell their shares on a regular basis. Open-ended funds allow the opportunity of purchasing and selling shares even after the initial offering (NFO) period. This is applicable only in the cases of new funds as the shares are bought and sold at the net asset value (NAV) declared by the fund.

Mutual funds are different from stocks in all respects and hence unlike your stocks you will not be able to monitor them or trade them in the open market. While the transactions happen on a daily basis on the fund with the selling and buying of new shares, in proportion to the same the total value of the fund or net asset value (NAV) is repriced accordingly.

What are closed-ended funds?

While the open-ended funds and closed-ended funds look similar, they're very different. To be precise a closed-ended fund is more like an exchange traded fund than a mutual fund. Like ETFs they are launched in the market through an IPO in order to raise money and then trade in the open market just like a stock or an ETF. The shares issues by this fund are limited and their value is estimated on the basis of the NAV. Though the value of these shares is based on the NAV, the actual price of the fund is determined by the supply and demand, and therefore the price of trading always differ according to the real market value.

Close-ended funds give a high dividend and therefore attract more investors. However, investors need to understand that though the borrowed money produce big returns on investment, using borrowed money for investment can get the fund under intense pressure in the long run.


While open-ended fund products are a safe choice for investment than closed-ended funds, the latter offers lucrative deal in terms offering higher dividend payments and capital appreciation.

We advise investors to be careful and come to any decision post a thorough weighing of all the pros and cons.

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Confused between ULIPs vs Mutual Fund? A Quick Guide

Confused between ULIPs vs Mutual Fund? A Quick Guide
by Nutan Gupta 13/06/2017
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The moment when you have made up your mind to invest your money is clearly euphoric. You realize the potential of earning good profits in the near future and are satisfied with the way you are planning to secure your future. But this is just the beginning of the tough world decisions. Finance is complex and so are the decisions involved with it. Deciding on which product to invest is a long debate with yourself as well as your manager. Stocks, insurance, bonds, mutual funds or ULIPs, the list is endless. We help you resolve the long standing debate between investing in ULIPs or Mutual Fund with this article.

What is ULIP?

ULIP or Unit Linked Insurance Plan is a life insurance product. A ULIP ideally is an insurance cover plan for the policy holder with the benefit of opting to choose for any number of investment options such as stocks, bonds or mutual funds. The ULIP plan acts as a single integrated plan, so the dual benefits of investment and protection can be enjoyed according to the specific needs and choices of the investor.

ULIPs require the investor to pay a regular premium for the policy cover as well as the investment made in stocks and bonds for wealth appreciation. However, the premium amount is paid for both the parts only once. A part of the premium paid goes towards providing the policyholder insurance cover, and the other is invested in stocks and bonds for wealth appreciation.  A policyholder has the freedom to choose the financial product it would like to invest in as a part of the ULIP according to his risk appetite.

What is Mutual Fund?

Mutual fund is an investment scheme wherein many investors come together to invest their money through a collected pool. The collected corpus is under the care of a fund manager-a financial expert hired specifically to invest the collected money in different financial products such as stocks, bonds, and other asset classes. The investors in a mutual fund enjoy the dividends after a particular time frame. The dividends can be reinvested into the scheme to enjoy a greater profit at the time of exit.

While ULIPs and Mutual funds always keeps a smart investor busy with the thinking business, lets grab an overview on the similarities between the two.


Mutual Fund

There is definitely a risk involved in investing in ULIPs. ULIPs face the risk of defaults and changes in the rates of interest.

The risk involved in investing in this financial product is higher as the equity investment is dependent on market fluctuations and a fund manager’s decision.

An investor with the ULIP is awarded shares on the net asset value basis and the individual investor has the liberty to invest the money in any financial product of his choice.

While investors in mutual funds definitely have shares with them, the discretion to invest in a financial product solely lies with the fund manager.

While the similarities between the two are few, the points of contention are many and varied. Let’s look.


Mutual Fund

A ULIP is a two way investment into insurance as well as core investment product of an investor’s choice.

A mutual fund is a core investment product.

A ULIP is a carefully planned out financial investment with the help of a financial advisor who determines the monthly premium on the basis of the investor’s income and expenses for a specific time period.

A mutual fund investment can begin with as basic as an amount of 500 Rs per month for a minimum period of 12 months as a systematic investment plan (SIP).

The exit from the ULIP plan before its maturity requires the investor to bear the financial implication.

There are no penalty implications to be borne by the investor in case of the discontinuation of the SIP.

The expenses for ULIP are high as the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA)prescribe limits only in certain cases, thus an insurance company has an upper hand in determining the investor’s expenses. The high premium allocation charge is ruled to be not exceeding 10% of premium. With this are the additional charges of mortality, fund management charges, policy administration charges among others.

Expenses though seem to be lower for the mutual funds with the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) setting the upper limits for expenses, expenses charged by mutual funds to investors for a range of activities like fund management, sales and marketing, administration are subject to certain limits. Charges over and above the specified limit if any are borne by the fund house instead of investors.

ULIPs have an investment period determined, with a minimum of 5 years locked in from the very onset of the first transaction.

Mutual funds have the ease of being changed into liquid asset conveniently as they are traded in the market on a regular basis. However, all mutual funds are not liquid in nature with ELSS being the most apt example.

ULIPs are also expected to submit their quarterly reports before the investors.

Investors of the mutual funds, according to the SEBI guidelines need to quarterly updated on the numbers of their portfolio. However, a monthly practice is followed by industry to ensure a transparency between the fund manager and its investors.

ULIPs allow the investor to choose the sum that he wants to be invested in equities and in insurance cover. Investors are also given the option of entry and exit from a mutual fund whenever they want.

The decision of entry and the exit point of the investment relies with the fund manager with no flexibility to change the asset allocation midway.

ULIPs allow the investor tax relief up to a limit specified under the Section 80 C of income tax with the proceeds also remaining tax free in the hands of the investor.

ELSS is the only financial product while provides tax relief under the Section 80 C. A minimum of 1 lakh are allowed as deduction. The proceeds of the mutual fund

do not give the investor relief from tax payments and attract redemption charges. Non-ELSS funds have different terms and conditions for the tax implications depending on the nature of the mutual fund.

Making a decision between the two is indeed difficult, however if liquidity is a cause of concern for you then mutual fund is a safer bet with no lock-in period. ULIP should ideally be an option for an investor if he wishes to switch funds in between or aims for lower costs with less risks in the long run.

Whatever the choice, we wish you the best in all your financial planning.

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5 Stocks Recommendation For Feb 25th, 2019 – Mar 1st , 2019

Stock recommendations
by Gautam Upadhaya 21/07/2017

1) Balkrishna Industries Ltd - Buy


Stock Balkrishna Industries Ltd
Recommendation The stock has witnessed a breakout from its sideways consolidation
backed by an uptick in volumes on the daily chart. It has also shown
positive momentum on the daily MACD-Histogram, an indication that
the uptrend will continue in the short term.
Buy/Sell Range Target Stop Loss
Buy (Cash) Rs850-855 Rs892 Rs827
NSE Code Market Cap (in Rs cr) 52-week high/low 200-Day EMA
BALKRISIND 16543 Rs1467/741 Rs987


2) REC Ltd - Buy


Stock REC Ltd
Recommendation The stock has witnessed a consolidation breakout backed by an uptick
in volumes on the weekly chart. Derivative data indicates fresh long
positions in the stock.
Buy/Sell Range Target Stop Loss
Buy (Cash) Rs131-133 Rs139 Rs127.8
NSE Code Market Cap (in Rs cr) 52-week high/low 200-Day EMA
RECLTD 26068 Rs148/89 Rs119


3) Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd - Buy


Stock Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd
Recommendation The stock has witnessed a rounding bottom formation and has managed
to close above its 10-DEMA, short-term resistance level on the daily charts.
It has also formed a bullish hammer candlestick on the weekly charts.
Buy/Sell Range Target Stop Loss
Buy (Cash) Rs641-647 Rs672 Rs625
NSE Code Market Cap (in Rs cr) 52-week high/low 200-Day EMA
M&M 80272 Rs992/615 Rs771


4) Raymond Ltd - Buy

Stock Raymond Ltd
Recommendation The stock has witnessed a breakout above its resistance levels backed by an uptick in volumes on the daily charts. It has also shown strong momentum on the daily MACD-Histogram.
Buy/Sell Range Target Stop Loss
Buy (Cash) Rs721-728 Rs755 Rs705
NSE Code Market Cap (in Rs cr) 52-week high/low 200-Day EMA
RAYMOND 4478 Rs1151/593 Rs806


5) HDFC Bank Ltd - Sell


Stock HDFC Bank Ltd
Recommendation The stock has formed a bearish engulfing candlestick pattern backed by an uptick in volumes on the daily chart. Derivative data indicates fresh short positions in the stock.
Buy/Sell Range Target Stop Loss
Sell (March Futures) Rs2105-2120 Rs2030 Rs2164
NSE Code Market Cap (in Rs cr) 52-week high/low 200-Day EMA
HDFCBANK 569029 Rs2219/1830 Rs2041


Research Disclaimer

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Short Put Options Trading Strategy

Short Put Options Trading Strategy
by Nilesh Jain 02/08/2017

What is short put option strategy?

A short put is the opposite of buy put option. With this option trading strategy, you are obliged to buy the underlying security at a fixed price in the future. This option trading strategy has a low profit potential if the stock trades above the strike price and exposed to high risk if stock goes down. It is also helpful when you expect implied volatility to fall, that will decrease the price of the option you sold.

When to initiate a short put?

A short put is best used when you expect the underlying asset to rise moderately. It would still benefit if the underlying asset remains at the same level, because the time decay factor will always be in your favour as the time value of put will reduce over a period of time as you reach near to expiry. This is a good option trading strategy to use because it gives you upfront credit, which will help to somewhat offset the margin.

Strategy Short Put Option
Market Outlook Bullish or Neutral
Breakeven at expiry Strike price - Premium received
Risk Unlimited
Reward Limited to premium received
Margin required Yes

Let’s try to understand with an Example:

Current Nifty Price 8300
Strike price 8200
Premium received (per share) 80
BEP (strike Price - Premium paid) 8120
Lot size 75

Suppose Nifty is trading at Rs. 8300. A put option contract with a strike price of 8200 is trading at Rs. 80. If you expect that the price of Nifty will surge in the coming weeks, so you will sell 8200 strike and receive upfront profit of Rs. 6,000 (75*80). This transaction will result in net credit because you will receive the money in your broking account for writing the put option. This will be the maximum amount that you will gain if the option expires worthless. If the market moves against you, then you should have a stop loss based on your risk appetite to avoid unlimited loss.

So, as expected, if Nifty Increases to 8400 or higher by expiration, the options will be out of the money at expiration and therefore expire worthless. You will not have any further liability and amount of Rs. 6000 (75*80) will be your maximum profit. If Nifty goes against your expectation and falls to 7800 then the loss would be amount to Rs. 24000 (75*320). Following is the payoff schedule assuming different scenarios of expiry. For the ease of understanding, we did not take into account commission charges and Margin.

Short Put Options Trading Strategy

Analysis of Short Put Option Trading Strategy

A short put options trading strategy can help in generating regular income in a rising or sideways market but it does carry significant risk and it is not suitable for beginner traders. It’s also not a good strategy to use if you expect underlying assets to rise quickly in a short period of time; instead one should try long call trade strategy.


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What are Sensex and Nifty?

What are Sensex and Nifty?
by Nutan Gupta 05/08/2017

Sensex and Nifty are stock market indices which represent Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and National Stock Exchange (NSE) respectively.

Sensex - BSE is India’s first listed exchange which was established in 1875. The total companies listed on the exchange are close to around 6000. The total market capitalisation of all the companies listed on BSE is Rs. 1,24,69,879 crore. BSE's popular equity index - the S&P BSE SENSEX - is India's most widely tracked stock market benchmark index. It is traded internationally on the EUREX as well as leading exchanges of the BRCS nations (Brazil, Russia, China and South Africa). BSE Sensex consists of 30 top scrips from different sectors which forms this index. BSE SENSEX is calculated on a free-float market capitalization methodology and the performance of these stocks impact the performance of Sensex.

BSE has recently launched a special platform for trading in SME securities. It has also launched a free float index - S&P BSE Sensex. BSE has a lot of other indices under various categories of Equity and fixed income. Indices under Equity include- Market cap/broad, Sector & Industry, Thematics, Strategy, Sustainability, and Volatility. Indices under Fixed income include - Composite, Government, Corporate, and Money Market.

Nifty - NSE began its operations in the year 1994. Nifty consists of 50 top scrips from different sectors which forms this index. NSE has a lot of other indices under various categories - broad market indices, sectoral indices, strategy indices, thematic indices and fixed income indices. The total market capitalisation of all the companies listed on NSE is Rs 12,282,127 crore.

In the year 2016, NSE launched Nifty 50 Index futures trading on TAIFEX. Nifty50 was earlier known as CNX Nifty. It was renamed Nifty50 in the year 2015. NSE has also been felicitated with a lot of awards over the years.

About 5paisa:- 5paisa is an online discount stock broker that is a member of NSE, BSE, MCX and MCX-SX. Since its inception in 2016, 5paisa has always promoted the idea of self-investment and has ensured that 100% operations are executed digitally with minimal to no human interventions. 

Our all-in-one Demat account makes investment hassle free for everyone, be it an individual newly venturing into the investment market or a pro investor. Headquartered in Mumbai, 5paisa.com - a subsidiary of IIFL Holdings Ltd (formerly India Infoline Limited), is the first Indian public listed fintech company.

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Short Call Ladder Options Strategy

Short Call Ladder Options Strategy
by Nilesh Jain 05/08/2017

A Short Call Ladder is the extension of Bear Call spread; the only difference is of an additional higher strike bought. The purpose of buying the additional strike is to get unlimited reward if the underlying asset moves up.

When to initiate a Short Call Ladder?

A Short Call Ladder spread should be initiated when you are expecting big movement in the underlying assets, favoring upside movement. Profit potential will be unlimited when the stock breaks highest strike price. Also, another opportunity is when the implied volatility of the underlying assets falls unexpectedly and you expect volatility to go up then you can apply Short Call Ladder strategy.

How to construct a Short Call Ladder

A Short Call Ladder can be created by selling 1 ITM call, buying 1 ATM call and buying 1 OTM call of the same underlying asset with the same expiry. Strike price can be customized as per the convenience of the trader. A trader can also initiate the Short Call Ladder strategy in the following way - Sell 1 ATM Call, Buy 1 OTM Call and Buy 1 Far OTM Call.

Strategy Sell 1 ITM Call, Buy 1 ATM Call and Buy 1 OTM Call
Market Outlook Significant moment (higher side)
Upper Breakeven Higher Long call strike price + Strike difference between short call and lower long call - Net premium received
Lower Breakeven Strike price of Short call + Net Premium Received
Risk Limited (expiry between upper and lower breakeven).
Reward Limited to premium received if stock falls below lower breakeven.

Unlimited if stock surges above higher breakeven.

Margin required Yes

Let’s try to understand with an example:

Nifty Current spot price (Rs)


Sell 1 ITM call of strike price (Rs)


Premium received (Rs)


Buy 1 ATM call of strike price (Rs)


Premium paid (Rs)


Buy 1 OTM call of strike price (Rs)


Premium paid (Rs)


Upper breakeven


Lower breakeven


Lot Size


Net Premium Received (Rs)


Suppose Nifty is trading at 9100. An investor Mr. A is expecting a significant movement in the Nifty with slightly more bullish view, so he enters a Short Call Ladder by selling 9000 call strike price at Rs 180, buying 9100 strike price at Rs 105 and buying 9200 call for Rs 45. The net premium received to initiate this trade is Rs 30. Maximum loss from the above example would be Rs 5250 (70*75). It would only occur when the underlying assets expires in the range of strikes bought. Maximum profit would be unlimited if it breaks higher breakeven point. However, profit would be limited up to Rs 2250(30*75) if it drops below the lower breakeven point.

For the ease of understanding, we did not take in to account commission charges. Following is the payoff chart and payoff schedule assuming different scenarios of expiry.

The Payoff chart:

The Payoff Schedule:

On Expiry NIFTY closes at

Payoff from 1 ITM Call sold (9000) (Rs)

Payoff from 1 ATM Calls Bought (9100) (Rs)

Payoff from 1 OTM Call Bought (9200) (Rs)

Net Payoff (Rs)












































































Impact of Options Greeks:

Delta: At the initiation of the trade, Delta of short call condor will be negative and it will turn positive when the underlying asset moves higher.

Vega: Short Call Ladder has a positive Vega. Therefore, one should initiate Short Call Ladder spread when the volatility is low and expects it to rise.

Theta: A Short Call Ladder has negative Theta position and therefore it will lose value due to time decay as the expiration approaches.

Gamma: This strategy will have a long Gamma position, which indicates any significant upside movement, will lead to unlimited profit.

How to manage Risk?

A Short Call Ladder is exposed to limited loss; hence it is advisable to carry overnight positions. However, one can keep stop Loss in order to restrict losses.

Analysis of Short Call Ladder Options strategy:

A Short Call Ladder spread is best to use when you are confident that an underlying security will move significantly. Another scenario wherein this strategy can give profit is when there is a surge in implied volatility. It is a limited risk and an unlimited reward strategy if movement comes on the higher side.