Stock / Share Market
by 5paisa Research Team Last Updated: 2023-06-20T15:31:50+05:30
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NIFTY’s full form is National Fifty, and it is one of the flagship stock market indices of the National Stock Exchange (NSE). A stock market index is a statistical measure representing a particular segment or the overall performance of a stock market. It provides investors and analysts with an overview of the market's performance and serves as a benchmark against which they can evaluate the performance of their investments. 

NIFTY is one such index that helps analyse the pattern of the sectors included in the index through company stocks and make informed investment decisions. 

NIFTY is one of the two major stock market indices, the other being the Bombay Stock Exchange’s Sensitivity Index or SENSEX. NIFTY is an umbrella term and includes a host of indices such as NIFTY 50, NIFTY IT, NIFTY Bank and NIFTY Next 50. The index is also a part of the NSE's Futures and Options (F&O) segment. 

What is NIFTY Meaning?

NIFTY is the largest stock market index of the NSE that derives its benchmark by tracking the performance of companies of a particular segment or sector. NIFTY meaning also stands for National Stock Exchange Fifty, which started on 21 April 1996. 

Among all the indices, NIFTY50 is the most widely utilised and traded by investors. It showcases the top 50 stocks traded on the NSE out of 1600. Investors use NIFTY to track market trends, compare the performance of different investments, and gauge the economy's overall health. 

It includes stocks of companies from 12 sectors, such as financial services, information technology, consumer goods, metals, pharmaceuticals, energy etc. The India Index Services and Products (IISL), a fully-owned subsidiary of the National Stock Exchange Strategic Investment Corporation Limited, owns the stock index. 

National Securities Deposit Limited (NSDL) is an Indian central securities depository in Mumbai. Established in August 1996, it helps investors buy or sell securities paperlessly. NSDL is the first national electronic depository of securities. It holds stock online, encourages investors to open accounts, and induces paperless trading. The primary operating market of NSDL is the NSE.

How Does NIFTY Work?

After understanding NIFTY's full form and meaning, it is essential to understand the working of the stock market index. The index consists of 50 stocks chosen from various sectors of the Indian economy. These are selected based on the NSE’s eligibility criteria, including market capitalisation, liquidity, trading frequency, and sector representation. 

The NIFTY calculation formula includes the floating market capitalisation-weighted methodology. Free float market capitalisation refers to the market value of a company's shares available for trading in the open market, excluding shares held by promoters, governments, or other strategic investors. The National Stock Exchange periodically reviews and adjusts NIFTY to ensure it reflects the changing market dynamics.

Eligibility Criteria For NIFTY Index Listing: What does it take for a stock to appear in NIFTY?

●    Domicile: The company must be registered in India and have its stocks listed on the National Stock Exchange. 

●    Liquidity: The stock should exhibit sufficient liquidity and have traded at least 90% of the trading days six months before the index review. 

●    Impact Cost: The stock's impact cost should be less than or equal to 0.50% six months before the index review.

●    Market Capitalisation: The stock should have adequate market capitalisation, ranking it among the top 800 companies listed on the NSE based on average daily market capitalisation six months before the index review. 

●    Trading Frequency: The stock should have a minimum trading frequency of 100% six months before the index review. This indicates that the stock has been traded on all trading days during that period.

●    Voting Rights: Companies having stock with Differential Voting Rights (DVR) can also list on the NIFTY index. 

What are the top constituents of NIFTY: Top Companies Listed Under NIFTY

Here are the top companies listed under the NIFTY index on the NSE as of May 2023.

Company Name

Current Market Price

ROE (%)

P/E Ratio

5 Year Growth (%)

Adani Enterprises Ltd





Adani Ports





Divis Laboratories Ltd





Apollo Hospitals





Tech Mahindra Ltd





Wipro Ltd





Tata Consultancy Services





HCL Technologies





Infosys Ltd





HDFC Life Insurance






How is NIFTY Calculated?

NIFTY is calculated through the float-adjusted and market capitalisation-weighted method. The method refers to the market value of a company's shares available for trading in the open market. It excludes shares held by promoters, governments, or other strategic investors. 

Before calculating the NIFTY through the formula, the calculation of the base year and value is necessary. The index has a base year and a base value to provide a reference point for measuring changes in its value over time. The base year is 1995, and the base value is 1,000 points.

The NIFTY calculation formula is: Current market value/Market Capitalisation of Base Year) x 1000

Major Milestones of NIFTY

Here are some of the significant events and achievements in the history of NSE since NIFTY’s inception.

Years: 1996-2000’

●    Started trading securities in the dematerialised format on the NSE exchange. 
●    Launch of the index futures based on the index of NIFTY 50. 
●    The listing of the index futures on Singapore’s stock exchange. 
●    The start of internet trading, where investors can trade digitally. 

Years: 2001-2010

●    The introduction of the index options based on the NIFTY index. 
●    The introduction of single stock futures and options on the listed securities’ index. 
●    The introduction of the listing of ETFs (Exchange Traded Funds). 
●    The introduction of NIFTY Bank index derivatives. 

Years: 2010-2020

●    Introduction of trading of index F&O on international indices. 
●    Introduction of trading of index F&O on the index of FTSE 100. 
●    Beginning of NIFTY 50 trading on Japan’s Osaka Exchange. 

Notable Highs in the History of NIFTY

Below is a list of notable highs and events pertinent to those in the NIFTY share index.


High Points

Related News/Events

26th August 2019


Beginning of US-China trade talks.

20th September 2019


Rate cut announced by Indian FM in corporate tax.

23rd September 2019


Results of the corporate tax cut in India.

7th April 2020


Results of the news showed that COVID cases were peaking in some countries and will go down shortly.

1 Feb 2021


The announcement day for the Union Budget.


Notable Lows in the History of NIFTY

Here is a list of notable lows and relevant events in the NIFTY stock market index.


Low Points

Related News/Events

26th February 2021


Global breakdown

12th April 2021


The unprecedented rise in COVID cases and speculation of lockdowns

26th November 2021


The discovery of a new COVID strain in South Africa

20th December 2021


COVID and inflation-related concerns

24th January 2022


Rising inflation and geopolitical concerns


What are the factors that cause changes in the Nifty?

These factors can cause changes in the NIFTY index.

●    Stock Price Movements: If the prices of the individual stocks in the index increase, the index value will also rise. On the other hand, if stock prices decline, the index value will decrease.

●    Market Capitalisation Changes: If the market capitalisation of a stock in the index increases or decreases significantly, it will affect the index value accordingly.


The NIFTY index measures the overall market performance based on the movement and weighted market capitalisation of its constituent stocks. It serves as a benchmark for investors and fund managers to assess the performance of their portfolios relative to the broader market. Understanding what is NIFTY and NIFTY meaning is vital for successful investing. However, NIFTY's full form and meaning can be complex, making it important to learn what is NIFTY in simple words. 

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