Union Budget 2023 - Live Updates & News

 

FM Nirmala Sitharaman presents Union Budget 2023

On February 1 (Wednesday) at 11 a.m., Union Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman will present the Union Budget for the fiscal year 2023–24 to parliament. Stay tuned for updates as they unfold in real-time.

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Frequently Asked Questions

The Union Budget can be seen as maintaining an account of the government's finances for the fiscal year. In India, the fiscal year runs from 1st April to 31st March. Union Budget puts all the expenditure projections on one side and the income projections on the other side. Then based on the gap, the budget decides on its outlay plans, borrowing plans, etc. Union Budget 2023 will be presented on 01-Feb by Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman.

Here is how the Union Budget plays a key role: Firstly, it enables the efficient allocation of resources in the interests of the Indian economy. After all, the government needs to ensure that welfare spending is productive. Secondly, it tries to reduce the levels of unemployment and poverty by announcing schemes for job creation and income like infrastructure schemes, MGNREGA, etc. Thirdly, Union Budget tries to reduce disparities between wealth and income; this is accomplished by adjusting direct tax rates and structures so that the wealthy pay a higher rate of tax (or surcharge) than those with lower income. Finally, the Union Budget attempts to control inflation, promote economic growth, and ensure that prices do not pinch households. Popular measures include fair price shops, food buffer allocation, etc.

The Union Budget of India is also popularly referred to as the Annual Financial Statement in Article 112 of the Indian Constitution. The Union Budget is the annual budget of the Republic of India, so we are talking about the central budget and not about state budgets here. This budget is presented each year on the first working day of February by the Finance Minister of India in Parliament. The FM team prepares the Union Budget. The core team members who have worked on preparing Union Budget 2023 comprises TV Somanathan (Finance Secretary), Ajay Seth (Economic Affairs Secretary), Tuhin Kant Pandey (Secretary, DIPAM), Sanjay Malhotra (Revenue Secretary), Vivek Joshi (Secretary – DFS) and V Anantha Nageswaran (Chief Economic Advisor).

In general, the government presents three types of budgets. The first is the Balanced Budget in which the estimated expenditures are roughly equal to the expected revenue for the fiscal year; this is based on the principle of 'cutting your coat according to the cloth' so that your expenses do not exceed your revenues. The second type of budget is the Surplus Budget, where the revenue receipts exceed anticipated expenses in a fiscal year. This budget is uncommon and is only used when inflation is out of control. The third one and the most common is Deficit Budget. Because the expenditures exceed the revenues, the difference must be borrowed. Most developing economies have deficit budgets, and the Union Budget 2023 is likely to follow be no different.

The Union Budget is divided into two parts: revenue budget and capital budget. The revenue budget focuses on routine and regular flows, whereas the capital budget focuses on flows that lead to capital inflows and outflows. The revenue budget includes both revenue receipts and revenue expenses. Revenue receipts can be either taxed or non-taxed. Revenue expenditure refers to the expenses incurred in the day-to-day operations of the government and the various services provided to citizens. These include salaries, wages, maintenance costs, and so on. A revenue deficit exists when revenue expenditure exceeds revenue receipts. The capital budget includes the government of India's capital receipts and capital payments. Loans from the general public, loans from foreign governments, and loans from the RBI are all major sources of capital. Capital expenditure refers to investments in machinery, equipment, buildings, health care, education, and so on. A fiscal deficit occurs when the government's total revenues exceed the government's total expenditures.

The Revenue Budget comprises the government's revenue receipts and revenue expenditure.

Under revenue receipts, the key component is tax revenues which include income tax, GST, corporate tax, customs duty, etc. Then there is non-tax revenue in the form of interest, dividends from PSUs profits from subsidiaries, fees, fines, penalties, etc. While revenue expenditure refers to the regular expenses incurred for the government's routine & smooth operation as well as the range of services provided to the public. These include salaries, maintenance, wages, etc. In the event that the revenue expenditure is more than revenue receipts, the government is said to be running a revenue deficit.

The capital budget focuses on capital flows. The capital budget includes long-term components such as capital expenditures or outflows and capital receipts or inflows. Loans from citizens through bonds, loans from the RBI, sovereign loans from foreign governments, loans from foreign markets, and so on are some of the major sources of government capital receipts. Capital expenditure includes costs for the development and upkeep of equipment, machinery, health facilities, buildings, education, etc. Generally, capital expenditure is considered GDP accretive, especially in setting up hospitals and schools, which has long-term positive implications. A fiscal deficit occurs when the government's expenditure exceeds its total revenue collection.

In the earlier response on the capital budget, we have seen that fiscal deficit arises when the total revenues are not enough to cover the total expenditure. Fiscal deficit refers to the scenario where the government expenditure is more than the revenues in a particular financial year. This difference is the fiscal deficit; it is generally calculated in absolute terms and also as a percentage of India’s GDP or gross domestic product. When we say that India’s fiscal deficit is 6.8%, we are referring to the fiscal deficit as a share of GDP. It should be noted that the revenue figure includes only taxes and other revenues and does not include money borrowed to make up the shortfall. The fiscal deficit is the amount of money that the government must borrow to close the budget gap. Not all fiscal deficits are bad. For example, if the fiscal deficit has increased because the government is investing in the construction of highways, ports, roads, airports then it can be valuable in the long run.

GDP, or Gross Domestic Product, is the monetary value of all final goods and services produced in a country over a given time period (normally one quarter or one year). GDP, as a result, totals all output generated within India's borders. GDP includes not only market-based production of goods and services, but also non-market production such as defence, education,and public health. GDP only includes domestic output. GDP does have some shortcomings. For example, the contribution of housewives is not normally captured in GDP because it is not taxed. To clarify, GDP is generated when a lady bakes a cake and sells it to a cake shop. If she bakes the cake for her children, however, it is not GDP. Similarly, volunteer work is not accounted for in GDP. In India, the most commonly used GDP measure is real GDP, which is the nominal value of GDP adjusted for inflation. The general rule is to use real GDP growth as a benchmark.

The fiscal policy encompasses taxation, subsidies, and public spending in general. It is the use of government spending, subsidies, and taxation to influence the economy in particular. During the COVID pandemic, millions of people were forced to leave their jobs and return to their villages, putting a tremendous strain on the economy. The Indian government developed special programmes to provide food and employment for such displaced families. This prevented people from going hungry, and it is one of the best examples of fiscal policy being used productively.

Fiscal expansion is when governments resort to large-scale spending, either to ensure universal income or to simply boost growth through the trickle-down effect. A contractionary fiscal policy, on the other hand, aims to reduce fiscal spending. Counter-cyclical fiscal policy is central to modern theory. This refers to the use of fiscal policy to mitigate the negative effects of the economy. 

A direct tax can be defined as a tax that is paid directly by an individual or organization to the imposing entity (generally the government). Eg: Direct taxes include income tax, property tax, wealth tax gift tax, and corporate taxes.

Indirect taxes, on the other hand, are taxes that can be passed on to another entity or individual. Eg: Indirect taxes include VAT, GST, central excise, and customs duty.

Direct taxes are paid directly by individuals or organizations to the government and include income tax, property tax, wealth tax, gift tax, and corporate taxes. Indirect taxes can be passed on to another entity or individual and include VAT, GST, central excise, and customs duty.
 

Fiscal policy is the policy under which the government uses taxes, public spending, and public borrowing to reach its economic goals. In plain words, it's the government's plan for spending and taxes to make the economy grow steadily.
 

GDP, or Gross Domestic Product, is the monetary value of all final goods and services produced within a country over a given time period. It includes market-based production as well as non-market production such as defense, education, and public health. Real GDP, adjusted for inflation, is commonly used in India.
 

A fiscal deficit occurs when a government's income falls short of its expenditures. It represents the disparity between the total income of the government and its overall expenditure. It is generally calculated as a percentage of the country's GDP. A fiscal deficit can be necessary if the government is investing in long-term projects like infrastructure, which can have positive implications in the long run.
 

The capital budget focuses on capital flows. The capital budget includes long-term components such as capital expenditures or outflows and capital receipts or inflows. Loans from citizens through bonds, loans from the RBI, sovereign loans from foreign governments, loans from foreign markets, and so on are some of the major sources of government capital receipts. Capital expenditure includes costs for the development and upkeep of equipment, machinery, health facilities, buildings, education, etc. Generally, capital expenditure is considered GDP accretive, especially in setting up hospitals and schools, which has long-term positive implications. A fiscal deficit occurs when the government's expenditure exceeds its total revenue collection.
 

The Revenue Budget comprises the government's revenue receipts and revenue expenditure. Under revenue receipts, the key component is tax revenues which include income tax, GST, corporate tax, customs duty, etc. Then there is non-tax revenue in the form of interest, dividends from PSUs, profits from subsidiaries, fees, fines, penalties, etc. While revenue expenditure refers to the regular expenses incurred for the government's routine & smooth operation as well as the range of services provided to the public. These include salaries, maintenance, wages, etc. In the event that the revenue expenditure is more than revenue receipts, the government is said to be running a revenue deficit.
 

The Union Budget of India consists of two essential parts: the revenue budget and the capital budget. Revenue Budget: This budget outlines the government's expected income and day-to-day expenses for the fiscal year. It includes revenue from taxes and non-tax sources, covering operational costs, salaries, and subsidies. If expenses exceed revenue, it results in a revenue deficit. Capital Budget: The capital budget focuses on long-term assets and liabilities. It involves capital receipts like loans and treasury bill sales, increasing liabilities or reducing financial assets. Capital payments include expenses for infrastructure, construction, and machinery acquisition, contributing to public welfare.
A fiscal deficit occurs when the government's total revenues exceed the government's total expenditures.
 

In general, the government presents three types of budgets: Balanced Budget, where expenditures equal expected revenue; Surplus Budget, where revenue exceeds expenses; and Deficit Budget, where the government plans to spend more money than it expects to receive in revenue.
 

The Union Budget of India, also known as the Annual Financial Statement in Article 112 of the Indian Constitution, is presented each year on the first working day of February by the Finance Minister in Parliament. The Budget Division in the Department of Economic Affairs, under the Union Ministry of Finance, is responsible for preparing the Union Budget. Once approved by the President, the Finance Minister presents the final Union Budget in the Lok Sabha.
 

The Union Budget plays a key role in efficiently allocating resources for the Indian economy. It aims to ensure productive welfare spending, reduce unemployment and poverty through schemes like MGNREGA, address wealth and income disparities through tax adjustments, and control inflation while promoting economic growth.
 

Every year, the government of India makes a plan for how it will spend and earn money. This plan is called the Union Budget, and it is shared with the Parliament. The budget includes estimates of how much money the government expects to receive and how much it plans to spend in a fiscal year. In India, the fiscal year runs from 1st April to 31st March. The Union Budget puts all the expenditure projections on one side and the income projections on the other side. Then based on the gap, the budget decides on its outlay plans, borrowing plans, etc.

Disinvestment can be described as the process wherein an organization or government sells or liquidates an asset or subsidiary. In the context of government budgets and fiscal policy, disinvestment typically involves the partial or complete sale of a government-owned enterprise.
 

During the budget presentation before the start of the new financial year, the government outlines anticipated earnings and expenditures for the year. These estimates undergo adjustments, and the revised estimates for revenues and expenses are presented in the subsequent year's budget. Any additional projections made in the Revised Estimates require approval from Parliament for expenditure.

Finance Minister Sitharaman is expected to present the Interim Budget for 2024-2025 on February 1, 2024, at 11:00 AM.

An interim budget is a provisional financial plan implemented for a brief period until a new government is established. It serves to manage expenses until a comprehensive budget is presented by the incoming government in July.