A Guide on Volume in Stock Market
Meta Desc: The sections below cover various aspects of the share market, such for example the trading volume, etc., and so on.
Volume in stocks is measured by the number of shares traded. Volume in futures and options is determined by the number of contracts traded. Volume is used by traders to determine liquidity, and changes in volume are combined with technical indicators to make trading decisions.
Looking at volume patterns over time can help you gauge the level of conviction behind specific stock and market advances and declines. The same is true for option traders, as trading volume indicates the current interest in an option. Volume, in fact, plays an important role in technical analysis and is prominently featured among some key technical indicators.
What Do You Mean by Trading Volume?
Trading volume refers to the total number of financial assets bought and sold over a specific time. This is one of the critical liquidity indicators when seen alongside other determinants.
For example, an intra-day trader would look for stocks with a high trade volume because it becomes easier for him to square off his position in a short period.
The trading volume is measured for stocks, bonds, futures, and options contracts. A candlestick chart is often used to check the trading volume of a stock, where green denotes the importance of buying and red color, indicates the sale volume of a particular stock over a specific period.
Volume charts are also prepared based on the period. For instance, they can be drawn up hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, or yearly.
Volume Indicators explained | What Volume Patterns Indicates | Technical Analysis
Three Volume Indicators
A volume indicator is a mathematical formula, the application of which enables traders to trade volume analysis. These are graphically represented in the form of charts. There are three significant indicators, each of which uses a formula based on a different market approach.
On-Balance Volume or OBV
Created by Joseph Granville in 1963, OBV is an accumulation-distribution indicator. It is a cumulative indicator of buying and selling pressures and reflects the crowd sentiment.
The formula for OBV is:
Case I: Current closing price is greater than the previous closing price
OBV (current)= OBV (previous) + Current Volume
Case II: Current closing price is less than the previous closing price
OBV (current)= OBV (previous) - Current Volume
Case II: Current closing price is equal to the previous closing price
OBV (current)= OBV (previous)
Chaikin Money Flow
Developed by Marc Chaikin in the early 1980s, Chaikin Money Flow generally indicates a short-term money flow divergence.
It is a volume-weighted average of the buying and selling of a stock over a specific time period, where 21 days is considered a standard Chaikin Money Flow period. It is measured using the money flow multiplier and the money flow volume.
Step 1: Calculate the Money Flow Multiplier
((Close Value-Low Value)- (High Value-Low Value))/(High Value-low Value)
Step 2: Calculate the money flow volume
Money Flow Multiplier*Volume for the Period
Step 3: Chaikin Money Flow
CMF= 21-day Average of the Daily Money Flow/ 21-day Average of the Volume
The values oscillate between +1 and -1, indicating the buying momentum and selling momentum, respectively. Anything near the zero line indicates a relatively similar buying and selling pressure.
The Klinger Oscillator, developed by Stephen Klinger in 1977, indicates the long-term trend of money flow. It is sensitive to short-term price fluctuations as well. Volume Force and Exponential Moving Average (EMA) are two components of the Klinger Oscillator.
Where Can You Find Trading Volume?
The number of shares traded or transacted during a given period of time or the trading volume is an essential indicator of market activity. The trading volume of a stock, bond, or commodity can be either high or low, depending on its market activity.
Traders use the volume of trade indicator as a part of technical analysis. The trading volume can be found on the stock exchanges, financial news websites, and other third-party trading and investment websites.
Besides, brokers also provide traders with trading volume information. Trading volume is represented through candlestick charts. You can find this information at the bottom of an asset’s price chart, which reflects the number of contracts affected and shares traded during a particular period.
The total volume of a stock is made up of the buying volume and selling volume. The distinction between the two is made by looking at the asking price and the bid price.
When a transaction is settled at the bid price, it contributes to the bid volume. Here, the bid volume is the selling volume because it has the potential to have a downward trend on the price. Similarly, buying volume is related to the ask volume because it pushes the price upward.
What Does Trading Volume Tell?
The movement of stock prices and trading volume results from several underlying reasons and gives out important information that aids technical analysis for intraday traders. The volume tends to be higher during the beginning and closing of trading sessions.
It also finds widespread use by investors in fundamental analysis. The movement of stocks in the market- when studied over a longer time frame, helps investors make critical investment decisions.
A record of the market activity of stocks is maintained and stored in the volume metric. A high volume indicates positive market activity around the stock. Conversely, harmful activity is shown by selling the stock, which could be due to a host of reasons, as discussed earlier.
Volume is a strong indicator of the liquidity of a stock. A stock with high liquidity allows traders the flexibility to buy and sell stocks more easily because there are a considerable number of buyers and sellers for the stock.
Volume and Price: How are they Related or Unrelated?
The market sentiment is often gauged by the volume and price of a stock. Market volatility significantly affects trading decisions, and when prices and volume move in the same direction, it strongly impacts market fluctuations.
When the price of a stock rises along with an increase in its trading volume, the stock is said to be following an upward trend. If, on the other hand, the price of a stock falls along with a decrease in its trading volume, it is said to be following a downward trend.
Conversely, when trading volume and price move in opposite directions, the market sentiment becomes uncertain, which might point toward price reversal. A reversal differs from a pull-back or consolidation where the price changes are minor.
A reversal refers to an overall change in price direction. When the general trend of the price of a financial asset is upward, and the reversal is on the downside, it indicates a weak link between the price of a security and its trading volume.
The converse is also true in this regard. Therefore, the high volume does not necessarily mean the price of a stock will soar high. Several other reasons are at play when it comes to stock prices.
While volume does not show the market trend precisely, it is a helpful tool for trading decisions. Measuring the trading volume is much easier than understanding what it means for the financial asset in question.
Along with other parameters for measuring the market strength and weaknesses, it can be used to confirm a price trend or anticipate whether a price reversal is a likelihood.