Input Tax Credit (ITC) under GST

5paisa Research Team Date: 21 Nov, 2023 05:13 PM IST


Want to start your Investment Journey?



Input Tax Credit is an important aspect of GST. GST's significance lies in the smooth transfer of the input credit throughout the supply chain, from goods production to the final consumer or across different states. This seamless flow of credit is made possible by the Input Tax Credit (ITC) system, an essential aspect of the GST. 
Under this system, any taxable and registered person can claim ITC on the inputs utilised or intended for use in their business, whether services or goods. Furthermore, ITC can also be claimed on the capital goods used for business, with some exceptions. Read on to know the input tax credit meaning.

What Is Input Tax Credit?  

Input Tax Credit or ITC, is a tax a business pays on its purchases and is later used to offset its tax liability when it makes a sale. Businesses can reduce their tax burden by claiming credit for the GST paid on their purchases. 

GST is a comprehensive tax system that requires every business purchase to be matched with a sale by another business. This facilitates a smooth flow of credit across the entire supply chain. Do you want to know more about what is input tax credit? Continue reading the following sections.


Who Can Claim ITC? 

To claim input tax credit under GST, a registered person must meet all these conditions: 
●    Possession of a valid tax invoice 
●    Receipt of the services and goods 
●    Filing of returns 
●    Payment of tax charged by the supplier to the government 
●    ITC may only be claimed upon receiving the last lot for goods received in installments.
●    ITC will not be permitted if depreciation is claimed on the capital good's tax component.

What Can Be Claimed As ITC? 

ITC is solely claimable for any business purposes. It cannot be utilized for services or goods operated exclusively for: 

  • Exempt supplies 
  • Personal use
  • Supplies where ITC is explicitly not available

How To Claim ITC?

Regular taxpayers must disclose the input tax credit amount in the GST returns monthly using Form GSTR-3B.

The format of Table 4 is given below: 

Any taxpayer may claim provisional ITC, which is 20% of the ITC's eligible amount reported by the suppliers in the GSTR-2A return in the GSTR-3B. Before filing the GSTR-3B, the taxpayer should verify the figure of the GSTR-2A. Before 9 October 2019, the taxpayer could claim a certain amount of the provisional ITC. However, CBIC has since declared that the taxpayer may only claim the eligible ITC, which is 20%, available in GSTR-2A in the form of provisional ITC. Consequently, in the GSTR-3B, the reported ITC from 9th October 2019 onwards would be the sum of actual input tax credit in the GSTR-2A with provisional ITC amounting to 20% of eligible ITC in GSTR-2A. As a result, it is critical to reconcile the expense ledger or purchase register using the GSTR-2A.

Reversal of Input Tax Credit

Input tax credit (ITC) can only be claimed on services and goods used for various business purposes. ITC cannot be claimed if it's used for personal purposes or exempt supplies. In addition to these scenarios, there are other circumstances where ITC may need to be reversed.

ITC is likely to get reversed in these cases-

1)    Non-payment of invoices in 180 days– Input tax credit (ITC) may be reversed for unpaid invoices beyond 180 days from the date of the issue.
2)    Credit note issued to ISD by seller– It applies to the Input Service Distributor (ISD). If a seller issues the credit note to the Head Office (HO), any Input Tax Credit (ITC) that was later reduced will also get reversed.
3)    Inputs partly for business purposes and for exempted supplies or personal use – This pertains to businesses that use inputs for non-business and personal purposes. Input tax credit (ITC) claimed on the portion of the input services/goods used for personal purposes needs to get reversed proportionately.
4)    Capital goods partly for business and exempted supplies or for personal use – It is like the previous scenario, but it specifically applies to capital goods. Input tax credit (ITC) claimed on capital goods used for personal purposes must be reversed proportionately.
5)    ITC reversed is less than required- This calculation is performed when an annual return is filed. If the total input tax credit (ITC) claimed on inputs used for non-business/exempted purposes is greater than the input tax credit reversed during a certain year, then add the difference amount to the output liability. Interest is also charged on this amount.

Reconciliation of ITC 

The input tax credit (ITC) claimed by a taxpayer must match the information provided by their supplier in their GST return. If there are any discrepancies, both supplier and the recipient will be notified after the submission of the GSTR-3B.

Documents Required for Claiming ITC 

Documents needed to avail of ITC are:

●    Invoice issued like Supply bill 
●    Invoice issued by the supplier
●    Bill of Entry or equivalent documents
●    A document provided by ISD – invoice/credit note
●    Debit notes from the supplier
●    Bill of Supply from the supplier 

Treatment of input tax credit already availed in exceptional scenarios

The GST Input Tax Credit regulations additionally include provisions for some unusual circumstances, including:

When a regular dealer who has availed ITC switches to the composition scheme
Suppose a standard dealer who utilized Input Tax Credit (ITC) decides to transition to a composition scheme. In that case, they must reimburse the ITC taken on their stock of inputs, semi-finished goods, finished goods, and capital goods on the day preceding their shift to the composition scheme.

When taxable goods and services become exempt
If a person's taxable goods or services are declared exempt, they must reimburse the Input Tax Credit (ITC) claimed on their stock of inputs, finished goods, semi-finished goods, and capital goods the day before the exemption date.

How To Avail Credit Where Tax Has Been Paid Under

If the following requirement is achieved, the importance of input tax credit may be claimed in the same month as the payment of tax paid on a reverse charge basis:
(1) Liability has been settled in cash 
(2) Goods or services have been utilized for business purposes 
(3) Self-invoicing has been done on such transactions since an unregistered supplier cannot submit a tax invoice.

The time limit for claiming Input Tax Credit (ITC) 

The input tax credit may be claimed against an invoice, debit note, or credit note, depending on whether the date is earlier.
•    September of the next financial year is the deadline for filing GST returns.
•    The day on which the annual return for that financial year was due. The ITC claim period for the FY 17–18 was extended to March 2019. 

Any such credit, however, would expire and cannot be claimed even though the GSTR 9 annual return if it has not been claimed by the filing deadline of March 2019.

As a result, it is clear that if an input tax credit has not already been claimed through another GST return, it cannot be claimed through GSTR 9 annual return.

Reverse Charge Mechanism (RCM) 

Under the products and Services Tax (GST) system, the recipient of products or services is responsible for paying the tax rather than the provider. This is the Reverse Charge Mechanism (RCM). In other words, the provider and the receiver are "reversed" regarding their tax duty.

RCM is applicable when a registered person buys goods or services from an unregistered provider in the context of the Input Tax Credit (ITC). In certain situations, the buyer of the goods or services is obligated to cover the transaction's GST and is also entitled to an ITC.

For instance, if a registered firm buys items worth 10,000 rupees from an unregistered supplier, the GST that would be charged on the transaction would be 1,800 rupees (assuming an 18% GST rate). According to RCM, the recipient of the items would be obliged to pay the GST of Rs. 1,800 and, subject to certain restrictions, might claim ITC for the same.

It's important to remember that RCM also applies in other situations, such as when a registered person buys products or services from a dealer who participates in the GST composition system or another registered individual. In such circumstances, the beneficiary of the goods or services must pay the transaction's GST and is ineligible to make an ITC claim.

To ensure that tax is collected from all transactions, even those involving unregistered or small suppliers, RCM is a crucial component in the GST system. Based on the particulars of the transaction and the status of the supplier, it may also impact a registered business' eligibility for an ITC.

Special cases of ITC (H2)

1.    ITC for Capital Goods

Under GST, Input Tax Credit (ITC) can be claimed for capital goods, but certain restrictions apply. ITC cannot be claimed for capital goods exclusively used for making the exempted products or for non-business purposes. 

2.    ITC on Job Work

Suppose a manufacturer doesn't complete the entire production process and instead sends the goods to any job worker for further processing. The manufacturer can still claim Input Tax Credit (ITC) for the tax paid on goods purchased. In both scenarios, whether the goods are directly sent from the main manufacturing facility or the supplier's point of supply, they will be eligible for ITC.

3.    ITC Provided by Input Service Distributor (ISD)

In the GST system, the role of the Input Service Distributor is to distribute Input Tax Credit (ITC) to each recipient under different categories like SGST/UTGST, CGST, IGST, and cess, for all the purchases made by the registered person. The registered person's head office, branch office, or registered office can be an ISD.

4.    ITC on Transfer of Business

In terms of mergers, amalgamations, or transfer of the business, a transferor is entitled to claim Input Tax Credit (ITC), which will be transferred to the transferee while transferring the business.

More About Tax

Open Free Demat Account

Be a part of 5paisa community - The first listed discount broker of India.